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The Ins and Outs of Farm Equipment Loans

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Farm equipment loans are a crucial financing tool for agricultural producers across the United States. Whether you need to purchase a state-of-the-art tractor, advanced irrigation equipment, or a high-tech fertilizer spreader, there are loan options available to help you acquire the machinery necessary to maintain and grow your farming operation. In this comprehensive guide, we'll delve into the intricacies of farm equipment loans, exploring what they are, how they function, and where you can obtain them.

Key Takeaways: Farm Equipment Loans

Farm equipment loans are a vital financing tool for farmers and ranchers, enabling them to acquire the machinery and technology needed to maintain and grow their operations. These loans can be used to purchase a wide range of equipment and are typically structured as term loans with repayment periods ranging from 1 to 10 years. Interest rates vary based on the lender, borrower's credit profile, and loan terms. Securing a farm equipment loan requires careful planning, including assessing equipment needs, evaluating financial qualifications, and comparing offers from multiple lenders such as USDA government-backed loans, captive financing from equipment manufacturers, traditional bank loans, and alternative online lenders. The best type of farm equipment loan depends on your specific needs and financial situation. Interest paid on these loans is generally tax-deductible as a business expense, but it's important to keep accurate records and consult with a qualified tax professional to ensure compliance with tax laws.

What are farm equipment loans?

Farm equipment loans are financial products specifically designed to assist farmers and ranchers in purchasing the machinery and equipment essential to running their agricultural businesses. These loans can be used to acquire a wide array of equipment, both new and used, such as tractors, combines, harvesters, planters, and utility vehicles. The equipment you purchase serves as collateral for the loan, providing security for the lender.

How does farm equipment financing work?

Farm equipment loans are typically structured as business term loans. In this arrangement, you borrow a lump sum from a lender and repay the principal, along with interest, over a predetermined period. Repayment terms can vary depending on the type of equipment you're purchasing, ranging from one to ten years.

Payments are usually made on a monthly basis, providing a consistent and manageable repayment schedule. However, some lenders offer flexible payment options to accommodate the unique cash flow patterns of agricultural businesses. These options may include annual, semi-annual, or quarterly payments, aligning with the seasonal nature of farming income.

Interest rates on farm equipment loans can range from 5% to 15%, depending on the type of lender you work with. Government-backed loans, such as those offered by the USDA, tend to have the most favorable rates. Bank loans and direct lenders may offer competitive rates for well-qualified borrowers. Online lenders, while often more flexible in their requirements, may charge higher interest rates.

The specific rate you receive will be determined by several factors, including your business's financial qualifications, the size of your down payment, and the value of the equipment you're purchasing. A strong credit profile, a significant down payment, and a high-value equipment purchase can all contribute to securing a lower interest rate.

Need for Farm Equipment Loan

Farm equipment loans play a vital role in the success and sustainability of agricultural operations. Here are some key reasons why these loans are so important:

  1. Preparing for the Unexpected: The farming industry is inherently unpredictable, subject to the whims of weather, market fluctuations, and other variables beyond a farmer's control. Having access to capital through equipment loans provides a crucial safety net, allowing you to replace damaged machinery or acquire necessary equipment to adapt to changing circumstances.
  2. Staying Competitive: The agricultural sector is increasingly dominated by large corporate farms with vast resources at their disposal. For small and medium-sized farmers to remain competitive, access to modern, efficient machinery is essential. Equipment loans level the playing field, enabling you to invest in the technology and tools needed to optimize your operation's productivity and profitability.
  3. Reducing Costs: While it may be tempting to squeeze another season out of aging equipment, this short-term thinking can lead to long-term financial strain. Outdated machinery is more prone to breakdowns, leading to costly repairs and lost productivity. It can also pose safety hazards, putting your workforce at risk and exposing you to potential liabilities. Investing in new or well-maintained used equipment through a loan can help you reduce these costs and risks over time.
  4. Boosting Efficiency: Advances in agricultural technology have led to the development of highly efficient machinery that can dramatically improve your operation's output and resource management. GPS-guided tractors, precision planters, and automated irrigation systems are just a few examples of equipment that can help you maximize yields, minimize inputs, and optimize your labor force. Equipment loans make these efficiency-boosting investments possible.

How to get a loan for farm equipment

Securing a farm equipment loan requires careful planning and preparation. Follow these steps to navigate the process:

  1. Assess Your Needs: Before diving into the loan application process, take the time to thoroughly evaluate your equipment needs. Consider factors such as the type of machinery required, the scale of your operation, and your budget constraints. Research equipment options and gather quotes from multiple suppliers to get a clear picture of the costs involved.
  2. Evaluate Your Qualifications: Lenders will scrutinize your business's financial health and your personal credit history when considering your loan application. Review your credit report and scores to identify any potential red flags. Gather financial documents, such as tax returns, balance sheets, and cash flow statements, to provide a comprehensive view of your operation's financial standing.
  3. Plan for a Down Payment: Many lenders require a down payment for farm equipment loans, often ranging from 10% to 30% of the purchase price. Assess your available cash reserves and plan accordingly. A larger down payment can help you secure more favorable loan terms and lower your overall borrowing costs.
  4. Gather Equipment Quotes: As part of your loan application, most lenders will require a detailed quote for the equipment you intend to purchase. Shop around and gather quotes from multiple dealers or manufacturers. Look for opportunities to negotiate prices or take advantage of special promotions or incentives.
  5. Compare Financing Options: Not all farm equipment loans are created equal. Research and compare offers from multiple lenders, including government-backed programs, traditional banks, captive finance companies, and online lenders. Evaluate factors such as interest rates, repayment terms, fees, and eligibility requirements to find the best fit for your needs.
  6. Prepare Your Application: Once you've identified your preferred lender, gather all the necessary documentation for your loan application. This may include business and personal tax returns, bank statements, equipment quotes, and a detailed business plan. Follow the lender's instructions carefully and provide complete, accurate information to streamline the application process.

Who are farm equipment loan providers?

Farmers and ranchers have several options when it comes to securing financing for equipment purchases. Here are some of the main types of lenders in the farm equipment loan market:

USDA Farm Loan Programs

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers a range of loan programs designed to support farmers and ranchers, particularly those who may struggle to obtain financing from traditional sources. These programs provide government-backed loans with favorable terms and rates. Key USDA loan options include:

  • Direct Farm Ownership Loans: These loans can be used to purchase farmland, construct or improve buildings, or promote soil and water conservation.
  • Direct Operating Loans: Funds from these loans can be used to purchase livestock, farm equipment, fuel, farm chemicals, insurance, and other operating expenses.
  • Guaranteed Farm Loans: The USDA partners with commercial lenders to provide loan guarantees, reducing the risk for lenders and making it easier for farmers to secure financing.
  • Microloans: These smaller loans, capped at $50,000, are designed to meet the needs of beginning, niche, and non-traditional farm operations.

To qualify for USDA loans, farmers must demonstrate that they cannot obtain credit from other lenders at reasonable terms. They must also meet specific eligibility criteria, such as having sufficient farming experience and a viable business plan.

Captive Lenders

Many major farm equipment manufacturers, such as John Deere, Case IH, and New Holland, have their own financing divisions. These "captive" lenders specialize in providing loans and leases for their own brand of equipment. Captive financing can be a convenient option, as the loan application process is often integrated with the equipment purchase.

Captive lenders may offer promotional rates or incentives to encourage brand loyalty. For example, John Deere Financial often provides low- or no-interest financing for certain equipment purchases. However, it's important to carefully compare captive financing offers with those from other lenders to ensure you're getting the best overall deal.

Bank Loans

Traditional banks, particularly those with a strong presence in rural areas, can be a good source for farm equipment loans. Banks often have a deep understanding of the unique financial needs of agricultural businesses and may offer specialized loan products.

For borrowers with strong credit and a solid financial track record, bank loans can offer competitive rates and terms. However, the application process can be more rigorous than with other lenders, requiring extensive documentation and collateral.

Some banks, such as Farm Bureau Bank, focus specifically on serving the agricultural sector. These institutions may have more flexible lending criteria and a greater willingness to work with borrowers to find customized financing solutions.

Alternative Lenders

In recent years, a growing number of online and alternative lenders have entered the farm equipment financing market. These lenders often have more streamlined application processes and more lenient qualification criteria than traditional banks.

Alternative lenders can be a good option for farmers who need fast access to capital or who may not meet the stringent requirements of other financing sources. However, these loans may come with higher interest rates and fees to compensate for the increased risk.

Some notable alternative lenders in the farm equipment space include:

  • AgDirect: This online lender, backed by Farm Credit, offers a simple application process and quick decisions on loans up to $500,000.
  • Currency: This online platform connects borrowers with a network of lenders, providing access to a range of loan options with competitive rates and terms.
  • Balboa Capital: This lender offers a no-money-down financing for new and used farm equipment, with terms up to 84 months and loan amounts up to $250,000.

When considering alternative lenders, be sure to carefully review the loan terms and conditions. Look for any hidden fees or prepayment penalties that could increase your overall borrowing costs.


Farm equipment loans are a powerful tool for farmers and ranchers looking to invest in the machinery and technology needed to maintain a competitive and sustainable operation. By understanding the different types of loans available and the key considerations in the application process, you can make informed financing decisions that support your business's long-term growth and success.

Whether you opt for a government-backed USDA loan, captive financing from an equipment manufacturer, a traditional bank loan, or an alternative lending option, be sure to carefully evaluate your needs and compare offers to find the best fit for your unique circumstances. With careful planning and the right financing partner, you can equip your farm for success today and for generations to come.

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Written by
Ivan Korotaev
Debexpert CEO, Co-founder

More than a decade of Ivan's career has been dedicated to Finance, Banking and Digital Solutions. From these three areas, the idea of a fintech solution called Debepxert was born. He started his career in  Big Four consulting and continued in the industry, working as a CFO for publicly traded and digital companies. Ivan came into the debt industry in 2019, when company Debexpert started its first operations. Over the past few years the company, following his lead, has become a technological leader in the US, opened its offices in 10 countries and achieved a record level of sales - 700 debt portfolios per year.

  • Big Four consulting
  • Expert in Finance, Banking and Digital Solutions
  • CFO for publicly traded and digital companies



What types of farm equipment are eligible for financing?

Farm equipment loans can be used to purchase a wide variety of machinery and tools, including but not limited to:

  • Tractors and attachments
  • Combines and harvesters
  • Planting and seeding equipment
  • Sprayers and applicators
  • Hay and forage equipment
  • Livestock handling equipment
  • Irrigation systems
  • Grain storage and handling equipment
  • GPS and precision farming technology

Eligibility may vary depending on the lender and the specific loan program. Some lenders may have restrictions on financing used equipment or certain types of specialized machinery.


What documents are required for a farm equipment loan application?

The specific documentation required for a farm equipment loan can vary depending on the lender and the type of loan. However, most lenders will require the following:

  • Personal and business tax returns for the past 1-3 years
  • Financial statements, including balance sheets and income statements
  • Equipment quotes or purchase orders
  • Proof of identity and business ownership
  • Business plan and financial projections
  • Credit reports and scores

For USDA loans, additional documentation may be required, such as proof of inability to obtain credit elsewhere, a description of farming experience, and environmental compliance records.


What are typical repayment terms for farm equipment loans?

Repayment terms for farm equipment loans can range from 1 to 10 years, depending on the type of equipment and the lender. In general, loan terms are based on the expected useful life of the equipment.

For example, a loan for a new tractor may have a term of 5-7 years, while a loan for a used piece of equipment may have a shorter term of 2-4 years. Some lenders may offer extended terms of up to 10 years for larger equipment purchases or for borrowers with strong credit profiles.


Who is eligible for a farm equipment loan?

Eligibility for farm equipment loans can vary depending on the lender and the specific loan program. In general, both new and established farmers and ranchers can qualify for financing, provided they meet the lender's criteria.

Factors that lenders may consider when evaluating eligibility include:

  • Credit history and scores
  • Financial performance and cash flow
  • Experience in farming or ranching
  • Collateral and down payment
  • Business plan and projections

Some loan programs, such as those offered by the USDA, are designed to support historically underserved or beginning farmers who may have difficulty obtaining financing from traditional sources.


Can I get a farm equipment loan with bad credit?

While having a strong credit profile can make it easier to qualify for a farm equipment loan and secure favorable terms, there are options available for borrowers with less-than-perfect credit.

Alternative lenders, such as online platforms and equipment financing companies, often have more flexible credit requirements than traditional banks. These lenders may be willing to work with borrowers who have lower credit scores or limited credit history, although they may charge higher interest rates to compensate for the increased risk.

USDA farm loans are another option for borrowers who have been turned down by other lenders due to credit issues. These government-backed loans have more lenient eligibility criteria and can provide affordable financing to farmers who might not qualify for conventional loans.

If you have bad credit, it's important to shop around and compare offers from multiple lenders. Be sure to carefully review the loan terms and conditions, including interest rates, fees, and repayment schedules, to ensure that the financing is affordable and sustainable for your business.


What types of loans are available for farm equipment?

There are several types of loans that can be used to finance farm equipment purchases, including:

  1. Term Loans: These are traditional loans where a lender provides a lump sum of money that the borrower repays over a set term, usually with fixed monthly payments. Term loans can be secured by the equipment being purchased or by other business assets.
  2. Lines of Credit: A line of credit provides a borrower with a set amount of funds that can be drawn upon as needed. This type of financing can be useful for farmers who need flexibility in their equipment purchases or who want to have a source of working capital available.
  3. Equipment Leases: Leasing allows farmers to use equipment without purchasing it outright. The farmer makes regular payments to the lessor for a set term, after which they may have the option to purchase the equipment, renew the lease, or return the equipment.
  4. Government-Backed Loans: The USDA and other government agencies offer loan programs specifically designed for farmers and ranchers. These loans often have more favorable terms and rates than conventional financing options.
  5. Vendor Financing: Some equipment manufacturers and dealers offer their own financing options, either through in-house programs or partnerships with third-party lenders. Vendor financing can be convenient, but it's important to compare offers with other sources to ensure you're getting the best deal.

The best type of loan for your farm equipment purchase will depend on factors such as your credit profile, the amount and type of equipment you need, and your business's cash flow and financial goals. Working with a knowledgeable financial advisor or lender can help you evaluate your options and choose the financing solution that best fits your needs.


How long can I finance farm equipment?

The length of time you can finance farm equipment depends on several factors, including the type of equipment, its expected useful life, and the lender's policies.

In general, loan terms for farm equipment can range from 1 to 10 years. Shorter terms may be available for smaller purchases or used equipment, while longer terms are more common for larger, more expensive machinery.

Here are some common financing terms for different types of farm equipment:

  • Tractors and combines: 5-7 years
  • Irrigation systems: 7-10 years
  • Livestock equipment: 3-5 years
  • Hay and forage equipment: 4-6 years
  • Grain storage and handling equipment: 5-7 years

It's important to choose a financing term that balances your monthly payment with your overall borrowing costs. Longer terms may result in lower monthly payments, but they also mean paying more in interest over the life of the loan.

When evaluating financing options, consider your business's cash flow and financial projections. Make sure that the loan payments are affordable and sustainable, even in the face of potential market fluctuations or unexpected expenses.


Are farm equipment loan interest payments tax-deductible?

In most cases, the interest paid on farm equipment loans can be deducted as a business expense on your tax return. However, there are some important considerations to keep in mind.

To be tax-deductible, the interest must be paid on a loan that is used for business purposes. If you use the loan proceeds for personal expenses or to purchase equipment that is not used in your farming operation, the interest may not be deductible.

Additionally, the deductibility of interest may be limited if your farming business is not profitable. If your business operates at a loss, you may be required to carry forward any unused interest deductions to future tax years.

It's also important to keep accurate records of your loan payments and interest expenses. You'll need to provide documentation to support your deductions in the event of an audit.

To ensure that you're properly claiming interest deductions and maximizing your tax benefits, it's a good idea to work with a qualified tax professional who has experience with agricultural businesses. They can help you navigate the complex rules surrounding business expenses and ensure that you're in compliance with all applicable tax laws.

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